The Coastal Ocean Research Institute (CORI)

The Coastal Ocean Research Institute was established by Ocean Wise to produce and communicate scientific knowledge, evidence, and understanding in service of:

  • Protecting coastal ocean life and habitats; ensuring they remain healthy for generations to come;
  • Informing responsible economic activity; and,
  • Safeguarding communities.




Financial Support

This project was undertaken with financial support from:

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Partners in seeking better information and planning for Howe Sound


The Squamish Nation has a vital, long-standing and future-looking interest in the environment of their traditional territory, which includes all of the islands in Howe Sound and the entire Squamish Valley and Howe Sound drainages.



The David Suzuki Foundation is a science-based environmental organization headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.



Contributors to the Howe Sound Edition

We would like to thank all of the many authors, reviewers, and contributors who have each generously shared their special knowledge and photos. Special mention and big thanks go to Bob Turner, who assisted with soliciting, writing, editing, compiling and shaping this report and to photographer Gary Fiegehen for sharing his spectacular work with us. We are grateful to the Squamish Nation and the David Suzuki Foundation, who have been dedicated partners in bringing attention to Howe Sound and seeking better information and planning. Our gratitude also goes to the Squamish Líl’wat Cultural Centre, who permitted us to reproduce content from the book “Where Rivers, Mountains, and People Meet.”

Producer and Editor


Producer: Peter Ross, Executive Director, Coastal Ocean Research Institute and Vice-President, Research, Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre

Editor: Karin Bodtker, MRM, Manager, Coastal Ocean Health Initiative, Coastal Ocean Research Institute



Juan Jose Alava, Ocean Pollution Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute, also with Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, University of British Columbia

Karin Bodtker, MRM, Manager, Coastal Ocean Health Initiative, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Laura Borden, Howe Sound Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Bonny Brokenshire, Bowen Island Municipality

Cortney Brown, Trout Country Fishing Guides

Tessa Danelesko, Coordinator, British Columbia Cetaceans Sightings Network, Coastal Ocean Research Institute, Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Center

Bailey Eagan, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Stephen Foster, David Suzuki Foundation

Julie Gardner, Ph.D., Dovetail Consulting Group

Donna Gibbs, Howe Sound Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Paul J. Harrison, PhD, Professor Emeritus, Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, UBC

Will Husby, biologist, citizen scientist, and nature interpreter, Ecoleaders Interpretation, Bowen Island

Colin Levings, Emeritus Scientist, Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Stephanie Linguard, Instream Fisheries Research

Jeff Marliave, Senior Research Scientist, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Casey O’Hara, Researcher, Ocean Health Index, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

Doug Pemberton, Artificial Reef Society of British Columbia

Karl Ricker, Geologist, Glaciologist, Mountaineer, Citizen Scientist and longtime birder, Whistler

David Roulston, Municipal Engineer, District of Squamish

Courtney Scarborough, Project Scientist, Ocean Health Index, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis

Jessica Schultz, Manager, Howe Sound Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Ruth Simons, Future of Howe Sound Society

John G. Stockner, PhD, Emeritus Scientist, DFO, Adjunct Professor, Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries, UBC

Edith B. Tobe, Registered Professional Biologist, Squamish River Watershed Society

Bob Turner, Geoscientist and citizen scientist, Bowen Island, Howe Sound

Nikki Wright, Executive Director SeaChange Marine Conservation Society



Susan Abs, Eclipse Environmental Consulting Ltd.

DG Blair, Executive Director, Stewardship Centre for BC

Dave Brown, Squamish-Lillooet Sportfish Advisory Committee Vice-Chair, and Sea-to-Sky Fisheries Roundtable Member

Kirby Brown, General Manager, Sea to Sky Gondola, Squamish

John Buchanan, Citizen Scientist, Squamish

Rob Butler, Pacific Wildlife Foundation

Sheila Byers, President, Marine Life Sanctuaries Society

Chief Ian Campbell, Cultural Liaison Ambassador & Negotiator, Squamish Nation

Peter Chandler, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, B.C.

Lena Clayton, B.Sc., Researcher, Marine Life Sanctuaries Society

Isabelle Côté, Professor of Marine Ecology, Department of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University

Ramona de Graaf, Forage Fish Biologist, Sea Watch Society

Marja de Jong Westman, Biologist, Capilano University, Lighthouse Park Preservation Society, Valdes Island Conservancy, Co-Chair: Canadian College and University Environmental Network

Glen Dennison, Marine Life Sanctuaries Society

Cynthia Durance, Registered Professional Biologist, Principal, Precision Identification

Ken Fong, Marine Invertebrate Biologist, Aquatic Resources, Research, and Assessment Division (ARRADD), Science Branch, Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Dana Haggarty, post-doctoral visiting fellow, Pacific Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Chief Gibby Jacob, Executive Operating Officer, Squamish Nation

Stephanie King, Sea This Consulting, Nanaimo, B.C.

Lance Barrett-Lennard, Director, Marine Mammal Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute, Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Center

David Levy, President, Levy Research Services Ltd.

Councillor Chris Lewis, Squamish Nation

Jeff Marliave, Senior Scientist, Howe Sound Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Neil McDaniel, Marine Naturalist

Conor McMullan, Director of Educational Programs, Cheakamus Centre

Marie Noel, Research Manager, Ocean Pollution Research Program, Coastal Ocean Research Institute

Neil Plumb, Manager of Real Estate, District of Squamish

David Roche, Senior Water Resources Engineer, Kerr Wood Leidal Associates Ltd.

Markus Schnorbus, Lead, Hydrologic Impacts, Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium

Jessica Schultz, Howe Sound Research, Vancouver Aquarium

Scott Slater, Principal, Bowen Island Community School, Bowen Island

Adam Taylor, Citizen Science and Howe Sound Liaison, Marine Life Sanctuaries Society

Scott Wallace, Ph.D., Research Scientist, David Suzuki Foundation

Chief Bill Williams, Lead Negotiator, Aboriginal Rights & Title, Squamish Nation

Gary Williams, M.Sc., R.P.Bio, Professional Wetland Scientist, GL Williams and Associates Ltd.

Graphic and Web Design and Production


Graphic Designer:  Ryan Murray, Vancouver Aquarium

Website Development: Meighan Makarchuk, Vancouver Aquarium

Website Programming:  Smash Lab

Graphic illustrations and icons:  Tracey Saxby, Visual Science

Cartography: Aaron Wong, GIS practicum student, Coastal Ocean Research Institute; Karin Bodtker, Coastal Ocean Research Institute; Tessa Danelesko, Coastal Ocean Research Institute



Balanced Environmental, Lance Barrett-Lennard, Colin Bates, Al Bird, Bonny Brokenshire, John Buchanan, Jenn Burt, David Cassis, Cheakamus Centre, Glen Dennison, Donna Gibbs, Gary Fiegehen, Thor Halvorson, Jessica Heydahl, Dr. Russell Hopcroft, Suann Hosie, Steph Hughes, Roy Jansen, Barb Lang, Carmen Leung, Jeff Marliave, Neil McDaniel, Lee Newman, Nick Page, Doug Pemberton, David Roulston, Sarama, Tracey Saxby, Ruth Simons, Jamie Smith, Doug Swanston, Adam Taylor, Edith Tobe, Bob Turner, Tim Turner, Lisa Wilcox

Additional contributors


Bruce Baxter, assessment biologist; Rob Bell-Irving, DFO staff-Community Advisor; David Bradley, Bird Studies Canada; Scott Christie, Balanced Environmental Services Inc., North Vancouver; Clare Frater, Islands Trust; Margot Hessing-Lewis, Hakai Research; Bert Ionson, retired Fishery Officer and salmon manager; Grant McBain, DFO staff-Community Advisor; Caroline Melville, Instream Consultants; Ray Richards; Steven Richards, Pacific Prawn Fishermen’s Association; Tracey Saxby, Visual Science; Suzanne Senger; Jim Skipp, Skipp Design; Brady Smith, Squamish Líl’wat Cultural Centre; Stephanie Smith, BC Hydro; Kimberley Stanger, Squamish Líl’wat Cultural Centre; Joe Tadey, assessment biologist; Anton van Walraven; Leslie Weeks; Barbara Wernick, Golder Associates; Jeff Willis, Fircom Society; Aaron Wong, GIS technician.

Participants at the Howe Sound Socio-Economic Knowledge Workshop, June 17, 2016


Mick Allen, Director, BC Marine Trails Network Association; Eric Anderson, Squamish and District Forestry Association; Jason Assonites, Bonchovy Fishing Charters; Bill Baker, Macdonald Development Corporation; Andre Boel, Director of Planning for the Town of Gibsons; Cortney Brown, Trout Country Fishing Guides; Kirby Brown, Sea-to-Sky Gondola & Tourism Squamish; Trevor Dunn, Sea-to-Sky Gondola; David Fiero with Squamish Nation; Lisa Geddes, Executive Director, Boating BC Association; Michael George, Tsleil-Waututh Nation; Patricia Heintzman, Mayor, District of Squamish; Hillary Highland, Tsleil-Waututh Nation; Derek Holmes, BURNCO Rock Products Ltd.; Emma Jarrett, Squamish Terminals; Sudhir Lamba, Howe Sound Pulp and Paper; Randall Lewis, Squamish Nation; Dave Loop, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Steve MacDonald, Council of BC Yacht Clubs; Alistair McCrone, Sea to Sky Regional District; Marian Ngo, Woodfibre LNG; Oydis Nickle, Bowen Island Tourism & Union Steamship Marina; Steve Nicol, Lions Gate Consulting; Greg Peterson, BC Ferries; Megan Sewell, Sewell’s Marina; Willard Sparrow, Musqueam Nation; Kate-Louise Stamford, Islands Trust; Kim Stegeman-Lowe, Squamish Terminals; Greg Suidy, Sunshine Kayaking Ltd.; Scott Sutherland, Mongoose Striker Charters; Lara Taylor, Hemmera, representing Woodfibre LNG; Dennis Thomas, Takaya Tours; Erik Toren, Mercury Transport; Joshua Viner, Squamish Windsports Society; Allen Wong, Director, Artificial Reefs Society of B.C.; Carlos Zavarce, Cornerstone Development.

Participants in the 2015 Howe Sound Knowledge Symposium


Ken Ashley, Director of BCIT Rivers Institute / BCIT Ecological Restoration Program; Lance Barrett-Lennard, Director of Cetacean Research Program, Vancouver Aquarium; Richard Beamish, Emeritus Scientist; Bonny Brokenshire, Bowen Island Municipality; Dave Brown, Squamish to Lillooet Sportfish Advisory Committee; John Buchanan, Squamish Environment Society; Peter Chandler, DFo Institute of Ocean Sciences; Lena Clayton, Marine Life Sanctuaries Society; Terry Curran, Pacific Salmon Foundation; Tessa Danelesko, B.C. Cetaceans Sightings Network, Vancouver Aquarium; Glen Dennison, Director of Marine Life Sanctuaries Society; Bridget Doyle, Environmental Stewardship Coordinator of Tsleil-Waututh nation; Kate Emmings, Islands Trust Fund; David Fierro, Okanagan Nation; Ken Fong, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Stephen Foster, David Suzuki Foundation; Matt Foy, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Julie Gardner, Dovetail Consulting; Donna Gibbs, Marine taxonomist, Vancouver Aquarium; Maria de Jong Westman, Department head of Biology at Capilano University; Jeff Juthans, Department of Forest, Lands and Natural Resource Operations; Steve Kachanoski, BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations; Tawney Lem, West Coast Aquatic; Colin Levings, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Chris Lewis, Squamish Nation Councillor; Randall Lewis, Squamish Nation; Nathan Lewis, Squamish Nation; Kari Mancer, Sea to Sky Clean Air Society; Jeff Marliave, VP Marine Science, Vancouver Aquarium; Neil McDaniel, Neil McDaniel Video and Marine Consulting; Caroline Melville, Instream Consultants; Roy Mulder, President of Marine Life Sanctuaries Society; Chris Neufeld, QUEST University; Chrys Neville, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Dianne Ramage, Director of Pacific Salmon Foundation; John Rich, Ratcliff and Company; Peter Ross, Director of Vancouver Aquarium’s Ocean Pollution Program; Dennis Rutherford, Fisheries and Oceans Canada; Jessica Schultz, Howe Sound Research Program, Vancouver Aquarium; Willard Sparrow, Musqueam Indian Band; Doug Swanston, Seacology; Adam Taylor, Director of the Underwater Council of BC/ Marine Life Sanctuaries Society; Edith Tobe, Executive Director of the Squamish River Watershed Society; Bob Turner, Howe Sound Environmental Science Network, Bowen Conservancy; Mel Turner, Elders Council for Parks; Lisa Wilcox, Squamish NationBill Williams, Hereditary Chief of the Squamish Nation.

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